First discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi or interference RNA technology has since been a hot area of research in the field of molecular biology. Introduction of RNA into cells that satisfy certain requirements can interfere with expression of specific genes in certain biological systems. The exogenously injected RNA can hybridize with the endogenously produced mRNA transcript provided that sequence complementarity is present. Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNA interference in the nematode worm C. elegans, which they published in 1998.
The paper that they published is given here