Gene therapy is an amazing tool which could pave way to efficient treatment for many diseases that were previously not treatable due to lack of efficient treatment procedures. However the human mind is so infinite that even the greatest findings could cause serious damage. Gene therapy is also one such finding that may be used as a performance enhancer in athletes.
Several reports exist on delivery of naked DNA into mammalian cells that could induce protein expression within. Thus it is no wonder that vaccination could be experimented with the delivery of heterologous DNA into mammalian cells. One form of DNA vaccination is the use of plasmid DNA to immunise against an array of diseases.
When a target DNA sequence and a complementary sequence are proximal enough and are properly oriented the two anneal together to what we call a hybrid. The complementary sequence is usually known as a probe. Several hybrids may exist such as DNA-DNA hybrids, DNA-RNA hybrids etc. The chemical reaction between the target and the probe is referred to as hybridization. If hybridization is carried out to analyze a sequence of interest that is present inside cells, tissue sections or isolated chromosomes it is known to be in-situ hybridization. However in contrast an in-vitro technique is carried out within suitable apparatus or typically in a test tube.
Nanotechnology seems to evade every possible scientific discipline, and medicine is certainly not an exception. Several attempts are being made everyday to efficiently treat and find a cure for cancer and several promising approaches are made to fulfill this purpose. Nanoparticles are one such approach.
It was the beginning of a revolution in Molecular biology in 1983 when Kary Mullis first introduced the concept of in-vitro amplification of DNA with a polymerase enzyme. Since then, several advances and derivations of this method has lead to numerous applications in molecular biology.
Real time PCR (qrt-PCR – Quantitative Real Time PCR) is one such PCR based method that actually incorporates amplification and simultaneous quantification of amplicons. During conventional PCR, the product is detected at it’s end but with qrt-PCR the product is detected during the progress of the reaction. The really useful application of PCR relies on quantification of m-RNA, in which qrt-PCR is coupled to reverse transcriprase PCR.